Varieties of Voltage Regulators and Their Principles of Operation

Varieties of Voltage Regulators and Their Principles of Operation

Voltage regulators play a crucial role in the power supply. Therefore, before discussing a voltage regulator, it is necessary to understand the function of a power supply in system design. For instance, the power supply is an essential component of any operating system, such as a smartphone, wristwatch, computer, or laptop. It supplies the internal components of the system with a consistent, dependable, and continuous supply. The power supply in electronic devices ensures that the circuits function properly by providing stable and regulated power. The AC power supply that comes from mains outlets and the DC power supply that comes from batteries are the two kinds of sources of power supply. As a result, the functions of various voltage regulators are covered in detail in this article.

What is a Voltage Controller?

Levels of voltage are controlled with a voltage regulator. The voltage regulator is the best option when a constant, dependable voltage is required. It produces a constant output voltage that is unaffected by input voltage or load conditions. It prevents damage to the components by acting as a buffer. Negative feedback control loops are utilized in a voltage regulator, a device with a straightforward feed-forward design.

Voltage regulators typically fall into one of two categories: Direct voltage controllers and exchanging voltage controllers; These are utilized in a wider range of tasks. The most straightforward voltage regulator is the linear regulator. It comes in two varieties, namely com

The voltage regulator’s primary components

Using the aforementioned three components, the voltage regulation process is very simple. Feedback Circuit Stable Reference Voltage Pass Element Control Circuit Changes in the DC voltage output are detected by the voltage regulator’s first component, a feedback circuit. A control signal that directs the Pass Element to pay off the changes can be generated using feedback and the reference voltage.

Here, pass component is one sort of strong state semiconductor gadget like a BJT semiconductor, PN-Intersection Diode in any case a MOSFET. The DC output voltage can now be kept about the same.

How the Voltage Regulator Works

When the input voltage or load conditions change, a voltage regulator circuit is used to create and maintain a permanent output voltage. The voltage is supplied by a power supply to the voltage regulator, which can maintain it within a range that is compatible with the remaining electrical components. These regulators are typically used to convert DC/DC power into AC/AC or AC/DC.

Types of Voltage Regulators and How They Work Integral or discrete component circuits can be used to build these regulators. There are two types of voltage regulators: linear voltage regulators and switching voltage regulators. These controllers are predominantly used to manage the voltage of a framework, be that as it may, straight controllers work with low proficiency as well as exchanging controllers which work through high effectiveness. The majority of the i/p power can be transferred to the o/p without being lost in high-efficiency switching regulators.

Types of Voltage Regulators There are essentially two types of voltage regulators: Switching voltage regulator and linear voltage regulator, respectively.

Linear voltage regulators are divided into two categories: Shunt and series
Switching voltage regulators are divided into three categories: Voltage regulators for step up, step down, and inverters.

Regulators for linear voltages

The linear regulator divides the voltage. It uses FET in the Ohmic region. The voltage regulator’s constant output voltage can be achieved by varying the resistance in response to load. The first type of regulators used to regulate power supplies were linear voltage regulators. The variable conductivity of the active pass element, such as a MOSFET or BJT, is responsible for altering the output voltage in this type of regulator.

In order to keep the output constant after a load is allied, any changes in the input or load will cause a difference in current throughout the transistor. The transistor must be operated in an active, otherwise Ohmic region in order to alter its current.

This kind of regulator loses a lot of power during this process because the transistor’s net voltage drops to become like heat. These regulators typically fall into a variety of categories.


The following are some of the benefits of using a linear voltage regulator:

produces a voltage with a low output ripple, responds quickly to changes in the load or line, and produces less noise and electromagnetic interference.


The following are some of the drawbacks of a linear voltage regulator:

Low efficiency; requires a heatsink; requires a lot of space; cannot raise input voltage.

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