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What is Motor Controller


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It is a tool that enhances an electric motor’s performance. It is a device used to control the torque produced by electric car motors. By altering the energy flow from the power sources to the motor, it does this. An automatic or manual method of starting or halting the motor may be found in motor controllers. It can decide whether to rotate in forward or reverse, pick and manage the speed, and alter or set a limit on the EV motor’s torque.

How does an EV Motor controller work?

Between the batteries and the DC motor is attached a straightforward DC controller. The controller sends the full voltage from the batteries to the motor if the driver presses all the way down on the accelerator. The controller sends 0 volts to the motor if the driver releases the accelerator.

The controller feeds the motor with energy that is extracted from the batteries. The controller receives a signal from the potentiometers that are connected to the accelerator pedal telling it how much power to send. The controller can give any power level between full power when the driver slams on the gas and zero power when the car is at a halt.

A wire from the gas pedal connects to these two potentiometers when you press the gas pedal: The potentiometer signal instructs the controller how much power should be sent to the motor of the electric vehicle. For the sake of safety, there are two potentiometers. The controller checks to see if the signals coming from the two potentiometers are equal. The controller does not function if they are not. With this configuration, a potentiometer’s failure in the fully open position is prevented.

A large on/off switch connected to the accelerator pedal would be the simplest possible DC controller. The switch would be turned on when you pushed the pedal, and off when you lifted your foot from the pedal. To keep the motor pulsing at a certain pace, the driver would have to press and release the accelerator.

Although that kind of on/off strategy might be effective, it would be difficult to drive, thus the controller pulses for us instead. The controller adjusts the power in accordance with the setting of the accelerator pedal as determined by the potentiometers. Suppose you have the accelerator pedal pulled all the way down. The potentiometer’s setting is quickly read by the controller.

In order to maintain the pulsing outside the range of human hearing, the majority of controllers pulse the power more than 15,000 times per second. The controller and motor are quiet to human hearing because they pulse at more than 15,000 cycles per second, which causes the motor housing to vibrate at that frequency.

The task is little more difficult when dealing with an AC controller, but the concept is the same. Three pseudo-sine waves are produced by the controller. It accomplishes this by pulsing on and off the DC power that it receives from the batteries. The voltage polarity must furthermore be reversed 60 times per second in an AC controller. Consequently, an AC power source requires six sets of transistors.

To keep the pulsing outside of audible range for humans, the majority of controllers pulse the power at rates of more than 15,000 times per second. The controller and motor are quiet to human hearing because the motor housing vibrates at that frequency due to the pulsed current, which pulses at more than 15,000 cycles per second.

Although the task is slightly more challenging in an AC controller, the concept remains the same. Three fake sine waves are generated by the controller. By pulsing on and off the DC power that comes from the batteries, it does this. In an AC controller, it is furthermore necessary to reverse the voltage’s polarity 60 times each second. As a result, an AC motor really requires six sets of transistors.

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