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What’s the Purpose of a Motor Speed Controller?

What’s the Purpose of a Motor Speed Controller?

A motor speed controller, also known as a motor driver, simply controls an electric motor’s speed and direction by adjusting the voltage that is applied to it; however, it actually has to do a lot more than that;

How ever, they can perform any or all of the following:

Give a controlled start-up (also known as a soft start). If you suddenly connect a battery to a motor, there may be a very high initial current surge. A stalled motor can consume up to 20 times its normal operating current. Due to the high torque produced by an uncontrolled switch on, we have witnessed motor cases being ripped apart and gear teeth being stripped. This initial torque spike can be controlled by a motor with a speed controller for a smooth [soft] start-up.
Reversing; The controller must first stop the motor in order to safely reverse the vehicle; if not done correctly, reversing from full speed can be exciting!
Protection against reverse polarity in case someone connects positive to negative.
Protection against faults in the circuit The controller ought to provide a secure response in the event of broken control wires, for example.
Provide all of the additional features that a variety of applications require, such as proportional control, smooth acceleration and deceleration, setting the top speed, limiting current, etc.

What are the workings of a motor speed controller?

The voltage at the motor looks like this… motor speed controller PWM waveform The motor averages these pulses out, as this rate of switching is too fast for the motor to detect. All 4QD controllers operate by switching the battery connection to the motor on and off approximately 20,000 times per second. The motor perceives a 24 volt battery as if it were only 12 volts and operates at half speed if the battery is only connected for half of the total time [B]. Additionally, the motor’s inductance, which functions like an electrical flywheel, keeps the motor’s current constant due to the rapid switching. However, the battery current will be half of the motor current because that current only flows from the battery for half of the time.

Since power is the sum of voltage and current, the motor controller actually functions as a transformer: In the previous example, the motor voltage divided by the motor current will be the same as the battery voltage divided by the battery current, so the motor will receive nearly all of the battery’s power. Because power is heat and the controller cannot effectively dissipate much heat, losses in the controller are minimal.

A more in-depth explanation of PWM can be found here if you are interested in learning more about how the controller accomplishes this.

Come check out our selection of motor speed controllers and the projects they’ve been used in now that you know what they do.

We likewise have a page that makes sense of additional about the various sorts of electric engines, for example, long-lasting magnet, series wound, shunt wound and so on.

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