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## Decimal, Binary, and Hexadecimal Number Systems

Humans have been using the base 10 (decimal) number system since we began using our fingers for counting. However, any number greater than 2 can effectively be used as the basis for a number and counting system. In fact, electronic computers use the base 2 (binary) number system at their most basic level. The binary system naturally corresponds to the ON/OFF or TRUE/FALSE nature of their electronic circuits and magnetic components. In the binary system, numbers are constructed using the two digits, 0 and 1, and each of these digits represents one bit of data. Other number systems are the base 8 (octal) and base 16 (hexadecimal) number systems. We will discuss the base 2 and base 16 systems and their correspondence to the base 10 system.

Let’s begin with the base 10 or decimal system. For such a system, we need ten unique numbers: 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, and 9. All numbers higher than this, and fractions less than 1, can be represented as powers of 10, as shown in Table 5.

^{3}^{2}^{1}^{0}^{-1}^{-2}^{-3}The binary system follows the same rule for the places, except each place is one power of 2 greater than the place on its right, as shown in Table 6.

^{5}^{4}^{3}^{2}^{1}^{0}^{-1}^{-2}^{-3}For the hexadecimal or base 16 system, we need symbols to represent the numbers from 10 to 15. For this system, A is used for 10, B for 11, C for 12, C for 13, D for 14, and E for 15.

^{3}^{2}^{1}^{0}^{-1}^{-2}Table 8 shows a comparison of the decimal, binary, and hexadecimal equivalents for the first 16 numbers plus 32 and 64. Use the rules above to understand the correspondences in the table.

10 in base 2 is 10102. The subscript indicates base 2. Another way to signify the base 2 number system is to put a small b (for binary) to the right of a number, i.e., 1010

_{b}.To prove that 1010

_{2}is equal to 10 in the decimal system, refer to Table 6. The binary number 1010_{2}corresponds to one 2^{3}, no 2^{2}, one 2^{1}, and no 2^{0}(ones). This is 8 + 2, or 10, thus proving 10 is equivalent to 1010_{2}.Additional examples:

10 in base 16 is A

_{h}. The subscript on the A indicates this is a base 16 or hexadecimal number.16 in base 16 is 10

_{h}. This is one 16 and no ones.16 in base 2 is 10000

_{2}. This is one 2^{4}, no 2^{3}, no 2^{2}, no 2^{1}, and no 2^{0}(ones).4096 in base 16 is 10000

_{h}. This is one 16^{3}, no 16^{2}, no 16^{1}, and 16^{0}(ones).There are rules for adding and subtracting numbers in base systems other than decimal, but for our purposes, as long as you can convert numbers back and forth between decimal, binary, and hexadecimal, you can use the more familiar decimal system for any computations.