# How does electric motors work

An electric motor is an electrical machine that converts electrical energy into mechanical energy. Most electric motors operate through the interaction between the motor’s magnetic field and electric current in a wire winding to generate force in the form of torque applied on the motor’s shaft.

## Introduction to Electric Motors

Electric motors are ubiquitous in today’s technology-driven world. They are crucial in driving the transition to renewable energy and sustainable practices, especially in the transportation sector with the rise of electric vehicles. The basic premise of an electric motor is to convert electrical energy into mechanical energy, enabling motion. This conversion is achieved through electromagnetic interactions within the motor, a principle first discovered in the early 19th century by physicists like Michael Faraday and Hans Christian Ørsted.

## The Basics of Electromagnetism

At the heart of an electric motor is the principle of electromagnetism. When an electric current flows through a conductor, it generates a magnetic field around it. If this conductor is placed within another magnetic field, the two fields interact, producing a force. This force can cause the conductor to move, creating mechanical motion. This fundamental concept is harnessed in electric motors to produce rotational or linear movement.

## Key Components of Electric Motors

1. Stator: The stator is the stationary part of the motor and usually contains windings of wire. When electricity flows through these windings, it generates a magnetic field.
2. Rotor: The rotor is the moving part of the motor that is placed within the magnetic field created by the stator. It is typically mounted on a shaft that transfers the mechanical energy to the desired application.
3. Commutator: In some types of electric motors, such as brushed DC motors, a commutator is used to reverse the direction of current flow through the rotor windings, ensuring continuous rotation.
4. Brushes: These are used in conjunction with the commutator to maintain electrical contact with the rotating rotor, allowing current to flow through the motor.
5. Bearings: Bearings support the rotor and allow it to rotate smoothly within the motor housing.

## How Electric Motors Work

The operation of an electric motor involves a few key steps:

1. Current Flow: When an electric current is supplied to the motor, it flows through the stator windings, creating a magnetic field.
2. Magnetic Interaction: The magnetic field generated by the stator interacts with the magnetic field of the rotor. This interaction produces a force on the rotor, causing it to turn.
3. Continuous Motion: In motors with a commutator and brushes, the commutator switches the direction of the current flow in the rotor windings, ensuring that the rotor keeps turning in the same direction.
4. Mechanical Output: The rotational motion of the rotor is transferred through the shaft to the desired application, whether it’s turning the wheels of an electric car or powering a household fan.

## Types of Electric Motors

Electric motors come in various types, each suited for different applications:

1. DC Motors: These motors run on direct current (DC) and include brushed and brushless variants. Brushed DC motors use a commutator and brushes, while brushless DC motors use electronic controllers to switch current.
2. AC Motors: These motors run on alternating current (AC) and include synchronous and induction motors. Synchronous motors run at a speed synchronized with the AC frequency, while induction motors operate based on electromagnetic induction.
3. Stepper Motors: Stepper motors move in discrete steps, making them ideal for applications requiring precise control, such as 3D printers and CNC machines.
4. Servo Motors: These motors provide precise control of angular or linear position, velocity, and acceleration. They are commonly used in robotics and automation.

## Applications of Electric Motors

Electric motors have a wide range of applications across various industries:

1. Transportation: Electric vehicles (EVs) rely on electric motors for propulsion, offering an environmentally friendly alternative to internal combustion engines.
2. Industrial Machinery: Electric motors drive machinery in factories, improving efficiency and automation.
3. Household Appliances: Everyday appliances like refrigerators, washing machines, and fans use electric motors to perform their functions.
4. Renewable Energy: Wind turbines and hydroelectric generators use electric motors to convert natural energy sources into electricity.

## Conclusion:

Electric motors are integral to modern technology, providing the mechanical power necessary for countless applications. By converting electrical energy into mechanical energy through the principles of electromagnetism, electric motors drive innovation and efficiency in various fields. From powering electric vehicles to enabling household appliances, the impact of electric motors is profound and far-reaching. As technology advances, the efficiency and capabilities of electric motors will continue to improve, further enhancing their role in a sustainable and energy-efficient future.

## FAQs

### Q1. How does an electric motor work step by step?

Ans. They operate using principles of electromagnetism, which shows that a force is applied when an electric current is present in a magnetic field. This force creates a torque on a loop of wire present in the magnetic field, which causes the motor to spin and perform useful work.

### Q2. What is the basic principle of electric motor?

Ans. The basic principle for all working motors is the magnetic attraction and repulsion. Since a magnet no longer moves once it has attracted, a motor needs some way to manipulate the magnetic fields so that the magnets attract and repel continuously. One way to do this is to have the current changing directions.

### Q3. What is an AC and DC motor?

Ans. An AC motor can be defined as an electric motor that is driven by an alternating current (AC). A DC motor is also a rotatory electric motor that converts Direct current (DC energy) into mechanical energy. 2. Types. AC motors are mainly of two types – synchronous AC motors and induction motors.

Automotive

Automotive

Automotive

Course

Course

Automotive

### Over 1.2 Million+ learners impacted worldwide

Learners from 170+ countries have grown in their career through our programs

Spend less time worrying about job availability, and more time growing your knowledge. Join DIYguru Program today.

If you’re a current student, please get in touch through the DIYguru dashboard to ask about more details of this Program.

Please note, eligibility for this course is reserved to students who have done related projects and have relevant profiles matching with the pre-requisite of this course.

The DIYguru team hold the right to cancel your admisssion into the program without any explanation via email if found unsuitable and unfit.

Our 7-day money-back guarantee starts from the moment of signup and runs through the free week. Cancellations between days 7 and 30 will get a prorated refund.

Fees for the program is charged only when the admission is approved.

PARTNERSHIP

### Colleges and Institutions

We're growing rapidly across the country, don’t miss out.

Partner with Us

UPSKILL

### Corporates and Industries

Have workforce requirement or employee upskilling!

Get in Touch

OPPORTUNITY

### Career@DIYguru

Work with a team that’s transforming future mobility.

DIY with Us

### Book Your Free Session Now

Avail free Guidebook and Expert Mentorship in EV domain curated by Industry experts.